Homemade Alchermes liqueur

It felt like I was mixing a magic potion. A little bit of this. A little bit of that. A crumbling of some bark, a few seeds. And then the final touch: a couple of spoonfuls of dried insects.

homemade Alchermes liqueur

Kermes or cochineal insects are what give this Renaissance-aged Tuscan liqueur it’s distinct colour, and its name. The dried insects infuse the liqueur with a deep, pinkish-red magenta hue and are then strained out, along with the other spices that permeate the liquid. The insects are the source of the natural dye known as carmine, the same natural dye that can also be found in food colouring and make up.

The fact that Alchermes (also written alkermes) gets its name from the cocineal’s Arabic counterpart, kermes, which in turn get its name from the Middle Persian word quermez, meaning bloody, crimson or red, just shows how key this ingredient is to the liqueur.

It’s been made more or less this way since the fifteenth century, when it was a favourite liqueur of the Medici family (so much so that in France is was known as the ‘liqueur of the Medici’) and touted as an elixir for long life. The Santa Maria Novella pharmacy still make their Alchermes to the same recipe that was created in 1743, when the monastery pharmacy began broadening their range of products from perfumes and medicines to alcoholic drinks. Alchermes was still at this time seen as a pick me up, a tonic to revive weary spirits, and did so well in to the next century too.

homemade alchermes liqueur

Today it’s rarely used for drinking – but this should really change, especially if you make it from scratch. As a strong (around 35% alcohol) drink, you might want to try sipping it after a meal like an amaro or dessert wine – but it’s bright colour and sweet spiciness is vital for many Tuscan dessert recipes, from zuccotto to tronco, a sponge roll filled with nutella (and this variation).

Now I know you must be wondering about the insects. You probably have already (unknowingly) come across them. Carmine dye comes from the parasitic cochineal insects found in Mexico and subtropical South America. They like to sit on the wide paddles of prickly pear, where they can be brushed off, individually, and then dried, a labour intensive process that can account for part of its price tag.

In the Near East, kermes insects (which are very similar to the cocineals) were used for their carminic acid, but being a more delicate pigment and not light-fast, Mexican cocineal took over as the most important imported pigment after the New World was discovered in the fifteenth century. This ancient Central American dye was enormously sought after in Europe (the history of its production in Mexico is fascinating), particularly as a fabric dye, but cochineal colouring fell out of favour in the late nineteenth century when much cheaper synthetic pigments were invented.

Before you get squeamish about the idea of using food colouring obtained from infusing insects, consider that it is a natural dye, also known as E 120 on food packaging. It’s synthetic red equivalent, E 124, is a much nastier substance, a known carcinogen that is banned in the US and Norway because of this (but apparently still used in the EU).

Alchermes - homemade Renaissance liqueur

I’m still tinkering with this recipe to get it just right before posting the recipe (for now it’s a bit too strong, over 40% alcohol, and a bit darker than usual) and then I’ll be presenting it during a workshop in Florence on December 29 with fellow history-lover, Molly McIlwrath.

I followed a recipe by Paolo Petroni, whose enormous Tuscan cookbook is one of my favourites. Pure alcohol is infused with a heady, aromatic mixture of whole cinnamon, cardamom pods, grated orange zest, star anise, coriander seeds, half a vanilla pod, macis, and a couple of whole cloves. A few grams of dried cocineal insects from the border of Mexico and Texas are added in with the spices and the whole mixture sits for 2 weeks, getting shaken occasionally. After this time, a syrup made from dissolving sugar into cold water, is added and another week later, rose water is added. It’s all filtered, then bottled and it’s ready to be used.

Anyone interested in the workshop and tour, Spices, Scents & Supper, please see our event on eventbrite for more information!


  1. Rosemarie says:

    Look forward to seeing your recipe Emiko. I’ve made zuccotto cake a few times this year but have substituted the Alchermes for Marsala as I’ve been put off by the colorants used in the bottles of Alchermes I’ve seen at the supermarket. I wonder where I’ll be able to find the dried cochineal insects here in Turin. What kind of shop did you buy them from in Florence?

    • Emiko Davies says:

      Good question! I bought them from this amazing shop, it’s like stepping back in time. The closest description I could use is perhaps an apothecary? The sort of shop where anything you buy comes out of a huge glass jar and is weighed then wrapped carefully in paper… it’s just divine. You can buy anything from essential oils to herbs to fresco pigments! When you come to Florence one day I’ll take you there!

      • Rosemarie says:

        Oooh, an apothecary! It sounds wonderfully medieval. Look forward to seeing Florence and this place one day. In the meantime, I’ll look for the insects here in Turin. Who knows, maybe there is a similar shop in Turin?

  2. Juls says:

    Ok, I’ll have to try it, too! I love when recise have this magic alchemical approach!
    And I am crazy about the old fashioned flavour and pinkish look alchermes gives to desserts, time to make a big production!

    And I’ll be happy to learn during the workshop!

  3. georgette says:

    oh my gosh, this looks and sounds amazing!!!!

  4. Mary Frances says:

    This is so interesting! Would love to try it out sometime.

  5. Virginia says:

    Could you tell us the name of the shop in Florence? I would like to go there the next time I am in Florence.

  6. ok it is 2018, where is the recipe to this Midici Liquor ?

  7. Kevin Sturtevant says:

    You’re killing me.. Like Rob, I to am dying to see this

  8. Hedy DeCampo says:

    Any news on the homemade Alkermes recipe? Anxiously awaiting in Pennsylvania, USA…no possible way to get the “real” stuff here…alcohol is government controlled, and it is illegal to have it shipped in. Tried some of the “substitutes” for pesche cookies, but they are severely lacking. Thanks!

    • sandy says:

      600 g di alcool
      10 g di cocciniglia essiccata
      10 g di cannella
      10 g di semi di coriandolo
      3 g di macis
      10 capsule di cardamomo
      4 chiodi di garofano
      5 g di scorza di arancia dolce
      3 g di anice stellato
      1/2 baccello di vaniglia
      600 g di zucchero
      100 g di acqua di rose
      Pestate in un mortaio tutte le spezie tranne il baccello di vaniglia, che taglierete invece a pezzettini.
      Riempite un vaso capiente o una bottiglia con l’alcool e 300 g di acqua. Aggiungere le spezie e la vaniglia. Scuotetelo bene: si colorerà subito di rosso cremisi.
      Chiudete il vaso e lasciate tutti gli ingredienti in infusione per un paio di settimane. Ricordatevi di scuotere il vaso almeno una volta al giorno.
      Trascorso questo tempo, sciogliete lo zucchero in 500 g di acqua e aggiungetela all’alcool e alle spezie. Agitate di nuovo e lasciate riposare per un altro giorno
      Filtrate infine il liquore attraverso un filtro da caffè in carta e versatelo in una bottiglia nella quale aggiungerete anche l’acqua si rose. L’alchermes è ora pronto per essere utilizzato.

  9. And then of course you could dispense with the barbaric cocineals altogether, as it was added for colour and not for flavour and bring this liqueur to the 21st century

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